This annotated bibliography was produced for the Voices of Snuneymuxw Project by Liz Harvey as part of a work study position for Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo B.C.. Funding for the work study was provided by Patrick Ross, Vice-President, Student Services.
Akrigg, G. P.V. and Helen B. Akrigg. 1977. British Columbia Chronicle,
Vancouver: Discovery Press.
The Akriggs are a husband and wife team of retired U.B.C. professors who led the B.C.'s self-publishing world with their publication of this book. They became the first couple in B.C. to receive the B.C. heritage award for the work they did on B.C.'s past.
In this book and its companion volume, the Akriggs chronicle life in B.C. with stories and accounts of both First Nations exploits and those of settlers. They include both maps and black and white illustrations of colonial and First Nations life.
Anderson, Alexander, Archibald McKinlay and Gilbert M. Sproat.
Report of Proceedings to the Minister of the Interior, 21st March
Canada Sessional Papers Volume 8, Fifth Session of the Third Parliament of the Dominion of Canada. Special Appendix D, pages li-lxiii.
Anderson, Alexander, Archibald McKinlay and Gilbert M. Sproat.
1877. Minute of Decisions, April 26th, 1877.
Land Policy Branch, B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. Indian Reserves, Minutes of decision, Box 1.
This report to the Minister of the Interior includes discussion about sites which were confirmed to be reserves for the Snuneymuxw First Nation by the Indian Reserve Commission.
Anonymous. 2001. Restoring Nanaimo's Shellfish Beds.
In S & E (Science and the Environment), Issue 25, July/August: 4.
This article covers the collaboration between biologists from Environment Canada and the Snuneymuxw first nation to monitor the water quality in Nanaimo Harbour. Due to contamination from fecal matter and pollution from the mills, the harvesting of shellfish in the harbour has been prohibited since 1949. The initiative is hoping to upgrade the classification of the shellfish beds and look into ways to both purify the shellfish and encourage local industry to clean up its act.
Anonymous. 1924. Herring Fishery an Important Asset to British
Telephone Talk, Vol.14 (5), B.C. Telephone Company.
This article discusses the benefits of a herring fishery to B.C. Mention is made of the Snuneymuxw and how the fish, chased by whales, would beach themselves up to a foot deep on the shore along Departure Bay.
Anonymous. 1855-1857. Nanaimo Memorabilia. Nanaimo Community
Archives. [Could be by Capt. C.E. Stuart or by J.W. McKay; typescript
copy held in B.C.
Archives and Records Service, Victoria, A/C/20.1/N15.2]. AR7/17.
This article makes mention of the abundant herring fishing in the Nanaimo region, and how the local tribes, including the Snuneymuxw would catch the fish and trade them to the Hudson's Bay Company representatives for blankets.
Barnett, Homer G. 1955. The Coast Salish of British Columbia.
University of Oregon Press, (Reprinted in 1975 by Greenwood Press of Westport Connecticut).
Barnett was a professor of anthropology at the University of Oregon and did field research among the Tsimshian and Coast Salish of B.C. In this volume he looks at the environments of several First Nations tribes including the Snuneymuxw. He also presents findings on how the tools necessary to sustain everyday life were obtained and used; discusses life cycles; the chum salmon harvests; describes the various types of housing, where they were located and how they were moved; and goes into some detail about social structure of the Coast Salish.
Barnett includes photographs of a Snuneymuxw village which was located near present day Port Place Mall. Also in this volume, Barnett describes other locations of Snuneymuxw villages, including one which was just downstream of the Cedar Bridge.
Barnett, Homer G. 1939. Culture Element Distributions: IX Gulf
of Georgia Salish.
Anthropological Records, Vol. 1(5). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Here Barnett talks about subsistence patterns and practices. He describes the fishing tools used by the Snuneymuxw, such as their fishing weirs; basketry traps; harpoons; two and three pronged fishing spears; halibut hooks; herring rakes; fish clubs; and their nets.
Barnett also goes into a description of the nets and snares used to catch deer, elk, duck and other water birds; how dogs were used to move and corral game; Snuneymuxw use of deadfalls and pit traps; and the harpoons used to catch seals and porpoises.
This work also discusses Snuneymuxw houses and their construction and use; and cemeteries, grave goods, grave markers, mortuary carvings and burial practices.
Barnett, Homer G. 1938. The Coast Salish of Canada. American Anthropologist, Vol. 40 (1): 118-141.
Barnett, Homer G. 1935-36. Coast Salish Field Notes: Book 7.
Homer Barnett Papers.
Special Collections Division, University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver.
Barnett discusses the five groups said to comprise the Snuneymuxw, which were classed by him as "tribes". He made use of a consultant from within the Snuneymuxw people and describes the use of moveable plank houses.
In these notes Barnett discusses, among other things, the knowledge needed by the headmen of the Snuneymuxw to paint designs on rocks which induced the chum salmon run to start. He also discusses the salmon ceremony and the special song which was performed before the caught salmon were allowed to be smoked.
Bate, Mark. 1922b. A Story of Olden Days Graphically Told By
One Who Knows, Part 2 [continued from Bate article (1922a)].
The Daily Herald, Nanaimo, June _ 1922 (reprint; originally published in 1907). Copy at Nanaimo Community Archives, B5/79, Box 7, Code 5.
Bate arrived in Nanaimo in the late 1850's and became Nanaimo's first mayor. In this collection of his stories about early Nanaimo and its citizens, he recites his remembrances of approximately 250 Snuneymuxw who were said to have lived in a village which existed near present-day Port Place Mall. The name of this village translated to 'little dog'. This village was also painted by artist James Alden.
Bate describes totem poles which were probably the grave figures painted by Alden, and talks about an Indian Necropolis on Jesse Island in the Brandon island Group.
Bate, Mark. 1922a. A Story of Olden Days Graphically Told By
One Who Knows, Part 1.
The Daily Herald, Nanaimo, June 11th, 1922 (reprint; originally published in 1907).
Bate, from Birmingham England, worked as a clerk for the Hudson's Bay company, and became the manager for the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company in 1869. In 1886 he was appointed Government Agent for the District of Nanaimo. In 1875 he became Nanaimo's first mayor: a post in which he served for 15 one year terms. His other appointments are too numerous to list here. Bates published many articles in the local papers after his own paper folded after six months in publication.
In this story, Bate describes how Snuneymuxw women helped to transport coal, and notes that most of the time they were paid better wages than the men.
Boas, Franz. 1895. Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen
Kuste Amerikas. Berlin:
A. Asher (translated in 1977 as " Indian Myths and Legends from the North Pacific Coast of American" by Dietrich Bertz, for the B.C. Indian Language Project, and later edited by R. Bouchard and D. Kennedy).
This work was originally pulled together by Boas from many of his earlier papers and published in 1895. In it, he presents the oral traditions of twelve different First Nations of the B.C. coast and interior and over 15 languages.
The translation and re-release by Bouchard and Kennedy pulls together more than 30 years of oral history study by the B.C. Language Project who sponsored this work which presents and discusses Indian myths and legends from the Pacific Northwest Coast.
This work shows Boas as an inexperienced and young biographer who methods were not yet above reproach. But, without Boas and his zeal to record the vanishing languages and cultures of the Northwest Coast, much of this information would be lost to us. He also gives the reader the origins of the word 'Nanaimo'.
Boas, Franz. 1889. Notes on the Snanaimuq. American Anthropologist 2: 321-328.
Boas, known as one of the founding fathers of North American anthropology, was trained as a physicist and geographer. He worked at the Royal Ethnological Museum in Berlin, and supplied that institution with many ethnologies collected by himself.
In this work, Boas, who learned the Snuneymuxw language, describes the field work he conducted in the winter of 1886-7. He describes the customs of the Snuneymuxw in the context of their geography and relations to their neighbours. He discusses marriage, birthing practices, mortuary customs, kinship, political alliances, military tactics, spiritual beliefs and practices, and two legends. Boas also discusses a war conducted by the Snuneymuxw against tribes to the north.
Bouchard, Randy. 1992. Notes on Nanaimo Ethnography and Ethnohistory.
Indian Language Project prepared for I.R. Wilson Consultants Ltd. In conjunction With The Departure Bay Indian Village Archaeological Project. Victoria, BC.
Bouchard is an ethnographer and linguist with the B.C. Indian Language project and documents the history, language, cultures and traditions of B.C.'s First Nations communities.
In this paper, Bouchard outlines a brief history of what is known and collected about the Snuneymuxw First Nation in which he provides data about the sources who wrote about the Snuneymuxw in the past, their territory, houses, groups, villages, migratory and subsistence patterns, place names, and first contact information.
Bouchard, Randy and Dorothy Kennedy. 1991. Tsawwassen Ethnography
In Archaeological Investigations at Tsawwassen, B.C., Vol. 1. Prepared by Arcas Associates for the B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Highways, pgs 97-170.
Bouchard, Randy and Chris Paul. 1974. Classified Word List for
B.C. Indian Languages, Halkomelem (Cowichan) Version.
Unpublished Manuscript, B.C. Indian Language Project.
Bouchard, Randy and Chris Paul. 1973. How to Write the Halkomelem
Language (Cowichan Dialect).
Unpublished Manuscript, B.C. Indian Language Project, Victoria.
Cryer, B.M. Indian Legends of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. F8.2/C88.1.
Cryer is known for collecting stories and legends which were illustrated by a local artist, Miss Betty Newton. Cryer lived in the Shawnigan area of Vancouver Island, and delighted in collecting local stories and legends which she rewrote as stories for children. They contained a significant amount of detail and ethnographic data.
This is a set of newspaper articles written Beryl Cryer, mostly for the Victoria Colonist. They are based largely Cryer's interviews with local Halkomelem elders.
Cutter, Donald C. 1991. Malaspina and Galiano: Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast, 1791 and 1792. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre.
Cutter is a professor of History Emeritus at the University of New Mexico who studies Spanish explorers and their voyages extensively.
This work explores the voyages of Spanish explorers to the Northwest coast and the area around Vancouver Island in the latter half of the eighteenth century. It discusses the contributions which the explorers made to what is known about first contact situations with Northwest Coast First Nations peoples.
Cutter also includes copies of paintings made by artist Jose Cardero while explorers Galiano and Valdes were in anchored in what is now Descano Bay near Gabriola Island.
Douglas, James. 1854. Report of a Canoe Expedition Along the
East Coast of Vancouver Island.
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 24: 245-249. London: John Murray.
Duff, Wilson. 1952. The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser Valley,
Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No. 1. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Duff was an anthropology professor at the University of B.C. who did extensive work on the First Nations of B.C.'s coastal communities.
This work contains ethnographic data and some descriptions of the boundaries of Snuneymuxw territory.
Fishery Guardian Notes. 1886-1887. Agent's Notebook, Cowichan
Agency, Fishery Guardian Notes.
National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. RG 10, Vol. 10, 014.
This publication was a non-First Nation's publication which provided a brief description of the weirs and nets used in the Nanaimo river by the Snuneymuxw.
Hayman, John. 1989. Editor. Robert Brown and the Vancouver Island
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Hayman, the editor of this work, teaches English at the University of Victoria in B.C. This book is part of a collection called "The Pioneers of British Columbia" series.
The book chronicles the exploits of 21 year-old Scotsman Robert Brown during a four-and-a half month expedition to Vancouver Island in 1863. Brown was to collect botanical samples for the Botanical Association of Edinburgh. This is his journal. In it, Brown describes the island's wilderness, its agricultural settlements and the coal mining that he encounters in Nanaimo.
Brown also writes about the policies in place at the time about reserves, and comments extensively about land claims and the failure to deal with these disputes.
Brown records an early example of a potlatch and provides a collection of legends and myths of the peoples he meets.
The drawings of the expeditions artist in residence, Frederick Whymper are included, as well as a description of the sites the expedition visited and Whymper drew.
Hill-Tout, Charles. 1904. Ethnological report on the Stseelis
and the Skaulits Tribes Of the Halkomelem Division of the Salish
of British Columbia.
Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 34: 311-376.
Hill-Tout was a pioneer settler at Abbottsford B.C. A president of the Anthropological section of the Royal Society of Canada, he recorded a ethnographies of the Coast Salish.
His Four-Volume work covers the period from 1895-1911 and provides notes gathered by Hill-Tout by means of a grant from the Government Grant Committee of the Royal Society of Canada to study the Halkomelem and the Coast Salish in general. Volume IV is specifically about the Sechelt and south-eastern tribes of Vancouver Island, with mentions of the Snuneymuxw.
Hill-Tout, Charles. 1903. Ethnological Studies of the Mainland
Halkomelem, a Division Of the Coast Salish of British Columbia.
In 72nd Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1902: 355-449.
Hoffman, T. Barbara. Editor. 2006.
Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
This work, edited by Hoffman collects pieces of legislation which have been used since the early nineteen fifties for the protection of cultural property. It includes a piece by author Wend B. Wendland entitled "Intellectual Property and the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions", which describes the use of the Trade Mark Act by the Snuneymuxw to protect 10 petroglyph images as cultural property.
Inskip, George H. 1853. Private remark Book, Vol.2. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. Add. Mss. 805.
Inskip was a sailor and Royal Naval officer who named many remote coastlines and locales and spent some time near Vancouver Island in the 1850's. he also surveyed much of Australia and New Guinea.
This document is his book relating his travels in the early years of the 1850's, in which he lists some of the people he encountered, among which are the Snuneymuxw. Inskip provides details of the coal-mining in the region, and discusses the territoriality of the Snuneymuxw, who did not allow some other local tribespeople to work in the coal mines of Nanaimo. Inskip notes that the Snuneymuxw and their allies also helped to load the coal ships and gave accounts of women and girls bringing coal to the ships in their canoes.
A copy of the census document listing him can be found at this URL: http://home.iprimus.com.au/waldingr/inskip.htm (opens in a new window).
Jenness, Diamond. 1955. The Faith of a Coast Salish Indian. Anthropology
in British Columbia, Memoir No. 3.
Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Jenness, born in New Zealand, survived an expedition to the arctic and joined the Canadian army as a field artillery gunner during the First World War. After the war, he worked fro the National Museum of Canada from which he made expeditions to collect ethnographic data on many of Canada's First Nations including the Coast Salish. Most of his work among them remains unpublished.
Kendrick, John. 1991. the Voyage of Sutil and Mexicana, 1792.
The Last Spanish Exploration of the Northwest Coast of America.
Spokane, WA: The Arthur H. Clark Company.
Kendrick is an assistant editor of the Hakluyt Society translation of the Malaspina Journal. This book is part of the Northwest Historical series, # 16. It describes the explorations of two small Spanish ships, the Sutil and the Mexicana which sailed from Acapulco to present-day Vancouver Island. The crew detailed features of the First Nations peoples and environments they encountered, including flora; fauna; geographic details; first contact situations; details about fur traders; and descriptions of English mariners they encountered.
The book contains maps and illustrations from the original manuscript of the Spanish sailors Dionisio Alcala Galiano and Cayetano Valdes y Flores.
Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard. 1990. Northern Coast Salish. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.7, Northwest Coast, ed. by Wayne Suttles. Pages 441- 452. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Kew, J.E. Michael. 1970. Coast Salish Ceremonial Life: Status and Identity in a Modern Village. Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.
Lane, Barbara. 1953. A Comparative and Analytical Study of Some
Aspects of Northwest Coast Religion.
Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.
Little, Ted. 1981. Nanaimo Indian Settlement Prior to 1850.
M.A. Thesis, faculty of Education, University of Victoria.
Lord, J.K. 1866. The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British
Columbia, Vol. 1.
London, Richard Bentley.
Maud, Ralph, Brent Galloway and Marie Weeden (editors). 1987.
The Chilliwacks and Their Neighbours. Vancouver: Talonbooks.
This book is a condensation of the works of Fraser Valley stock breeder and ethnographer Oliver Nelson Wells. It contains interviews with many of Wells' neighbours and friends from First Nations communities who provide him with stories and memories of their cultures.
Wells is credited with documenting, sketching and taping the cultures of several First Nations including the Squamish and the Chilliwack among others.
Paul, Chris. 1971. Snake Island [story narrated in Halkomelem,
and translated into English, under the auspices of the B.C. Indian
Unpublished manuscript, B.C. Indian Language Project, Victoria.
Peake, F.A. 1984. John Booth Good in British Columbia. Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Vol. 75 (1): 70-78.
Planta, Laura A. n.d. [Memoirs of Nanaimo History]. Excerpts published in The Nanaimo Daily Free Press, July 31st, 1948: 2-6.
Robinson, Sarah A. 1963.
Spirit Dancing Among The Salish Indians, Vancouver Island, B.C. Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Chicago.
Rozen, David. 1985. Place
Names of the Island Halkomelem Indian People. M.A. Thesis in Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Smith, Harlan I. 1907. Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and
Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. 4 (6): 303-441. New York.
Stenzel, Franz. 1975. James Madison Alden: Yankee Artist of the
Pacific Coast, 1854-1860.
Fort Worth, Texas: Anon Carter Museum.
Suttles, Wayne. 1990. Central Coast Salish. Handbook of North
American Indians, Vol.7, Northwest Coast, ed. by Wayne Suttles:
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Suttles, who passed away in late 2005, was an editor, author and anthropologist who worked at UBC, the University of Washington, the University of Nevada-Reno, and Portland State University. He was the first person to receive a doctoral degree in anthropology from the University of Washington. He is considered the definitive expert on the Coast Salish people. His theories on intertribal potlatches and marriages among the Coast Salish are still widely taught today.
This book is widely considered to be the ultimate text on Northwest Indian culture. Suttles' work often serves as the basis for court decisions utilizing historical and cultural evidence. Suttles has helped to settle land claims by proving that tribes thought to be extinct are alive and well.
Suttles is also an expert in each of the 23 recognized Salish languages.
Suttles, Wayne. 1987. Coast Salish Essays. Vancouver: Talonbooks; and Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Suttles, Wayne. 1955. Katzie Ethnographic Notes. Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir 3. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Suttles, Wayne. 1952. Chemainus Fieldnotes. In Duff n.d. Halkomelem and Straits Fieldnotes, Wilson Duff Papers, File 154, Anthropological Collections, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria.
Thompson, William F. 1913. Report on the Clam-Beds of British
Columbia. In Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for the Year
Ending December 31st, 1912.
B.C. Sessional Papers. Victoria: King's Printers: 137-156.
Thompson, Laurence C. and M. Dale Kinkade. 1990. Languages. Handbook
of North American Indians, Vol. 7, Northwest Coast, ed. Wayne
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Thom, Brian. 2005. Coast Salish Senses of Place: Dwelling, Meaning,
Power, Property and Territory in the Coast Salish World.
Ph.D dissertation in anthropology, McGill University, 2005. Available online at : http://pages.ca.inter.net/~bthom/ (opens in a new window)
Thom, Brian. 1996-2006. Coast Salish Ethnographic Essays. Available online at: http://home.istar.ca/~bthom/ethnog.htm (opens in a new window)
Trevan, Henry. 1852-1854. Journal of Surgeon Henry Trevan. National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. MG 24, F40-F48.
Turner, Nancy, and Marcus A.M. Bell. 1971. The Ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Economic Botany, Vol. 25 (1):63-104.
Wagner, Henry R. 1933. Spanish Explorations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Santa Ana, CA: Fine Arts Press (reprinted in 1971 by AMS Press, New York).
Walbran, John T. 1909. British Columbia Coast Names, 1592-1906.
Government Printing Service (reprinted in 1971 by J.J. Douglas Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.
Other Documents: Maps, Fieldnotes Etc.
References to the Snuneymuxw also appear in the following documents. Much of this information was extracted from Randy Bouchard's "Notes on Nanaimo Ethnography and Ethnohistory" referenced herein.
Bate, Mark. 1870. Letter From Mark Bate to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, August 3rd, 1870. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. GR 1372, File 132/10a.
Blenkinsop, George. 1876-1877. No. 1 Census of Indian Tribes, Winter, 1876 and 1877 [includes Nanaimo census dated December 18th, 1876]. National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. RG 10, Vol. 494.
Boas, Franz. n.d.a. [Nanaimo Grammatical Notes and Texts]. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Ms.# 738.
Boas, Franz. n.d.b. [Nanaimo Vocabulary]. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., Ms.#712-a.
Boas, Franz. 1887. Zur Ethnologie Britisch-Kolumbiens. Mitteilungen aus Justus Perthes' Geographischer Anstalt. 33 Band: 129-133 [ethnological map included].
Canada and British Columbia. 1913. Transcript of evidence presented by the Nanaimo Band at the Royal Commission on Indian Affairs, May 1913.The British Columbia Archives and records Service in Victoria has a transcript. Add. Mss. 1056.
Departure Bay Area Official Plan. N.d. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 4T1 East Coast V.I.
D'Heureuse, R. 1860. Map of the Nanaimo Country. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 10T3 Old Maps.
Douglas, James. 1852a. Letter from James Douglas to Archibald Barclay. June 23rd, 1852.Cited on page xciv of Fort Victoria Letters 1846-1851, Publications of The Hudson's Bay Record Society XXXII. Edited by H. Bowsfield. Winnipeg: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1979.
Douglas, James. 1852b. Letter of instructions to J.W. McKay, August 24th 1852. Nanaimo Community Archives. [A copy typescript copy is in the B.C. Archives and Records Service, Victoria, A/C/20.1/N15]. D5/65.
Douglas, James. 1853a. Letter from James Douglas to Archibald Barclay, September 3rd, 1853. In Letters to Hudson's Bay Company on Vancouver Island Colony 1850- 1855. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20/Vi2A.
Douglas, James. 1853b. Original Indian Population, Vancouver island. Sir James Douglas Private Papers, Second Series. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. B/20/1853.
Duff, Wilson. N.d. Halkomelem and Straits. Wilson Duff Papers, Anthropological Collections, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. File 54.
Duff, Wilson. 1953-1956. Miscellaneous Notes on Local Salish. Wilson Duff Papers, Anthropological Collections, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. File 114.
Good, J.B. n.d. The Utmost Bounds of the West; Pioneer Jottings or Forty Years Missionary Reminiscences of the Out West Pacific Coast, A.D. 1861 to A.D. 1900. British Columbia Archives and records Service, Victoria. E/B/G59.
Grant, W.C. 1857. Description of Vancouver island. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 27: 268-320.
Green, A. 1878. Surveyor's Field Notebook, Nanaimo Indian Reserves. I.R./V.I/10. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria.
Heaton, George. 1860. Letter from George Heaton to the Colonial Secretary, June 19th, 1860. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. GR 1372, File 748/24e.
Hudson's Bay Company. 1862-1864. Map of the Company's Land at Nanaimo [based on The HBC's 1855 map]. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. Map Division, CM/A214.
Hudson's Bay Company. 1855. Minute of a Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, With map, May 17th, 1855. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/15/H86N. (A different version of the map appears in the Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, Winnipeg. A.1/70).
Hudson's Bay Company. 1854a. Conveyance of Land from Sarlequun tribe. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. Add. Mss. 772, Vol. 2, File 3.
Hudson's Bay Company. 1854b. Return of Treaties Made by Hudson's bay Co. with Indian tribes. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. F/53/H86.
Hudson's Bay Company. 1838-1839. Census of Indian Population [compiled by J.M. Yale, Clerk in charge of Fort Langley]. Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, Winnipeg. B.223/z/1.
Hudson's Bay Company. 1830. [Census of Indian Population, compiled by Archibald McDonald, Fort Langley]. In Report to the Governor and Council, February 25th, 1830. Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, Winnipeg. D.4/123 (published in 1979 In The History of Fort Langley, 1827-96, By Mary K. Cullen, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, Paper NO. 20, National Historic Parks and Sites, Ottawa).
James H. 1859. Mountain District (Rough Sketch), Vancouver Island Colony. Topographical depot of the War Office. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 8T1 Land Divisions.
Jenness, Diamond. n.d. The Saanitch Indians of Vancouver Island. Unpublished Manuscript. Ethnology Division, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, Quebec. Ms. # 1103.6 page 111 plus appendices.
Jenness, Diamond. 1934-1936a. Coast Salish Fieldnotes. Canadian Ethnology Service, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, Quebec. Ms. # 1103.6: 146.
Jenness, Diamond. 1946-1936b.Coast Salish Fieldnotes. Canadian Ethnology Service, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, Quebec. Ms. # 1103.6: 174.
MacMillan, J. and A. McDonald. 1827-1830. Fort Langley Journal, June 1827-July 1830. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/B/20/L2A2M.
McKay, J.W. 1853a. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, May 18th, 1853. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
McKay, J.W. 1853b. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, August 14th, 1853. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
McKay, J.W. 1852a. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, September 9th, 1852. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
McKay, J.W. 1852b. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, September 16th, 1852. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
McKay, J.W. 1852c. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, October 7th, 1852. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
McKay, J.W. 1852d. Letter from J.W. McKay to James Douglas, October 22nd, 1852. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/20.1/N15.
Mohun, E. 1870. Field Notes of Various Surveys, Vancouver island. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B. C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 8/70. P.H. 1 Oyster District.
Mohun and Farwell. 1871. Map Shewing Line of Proposed Tramway at Departure Bay [signed by "Mohun and Farwell"]. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 2 Locker 10.
Monroe, Robert D. 1960. Two Early Views of Vancouver Island. Beaver, Summer 1960: 12-14.
Mountain District Plan. n.d. [Certified copy of Government Plan, Mountain District, Nanaimo (based on James' 1859 Mountain District sketch)]. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 9T1 Land Divisions.
Nanaimo District Official Map. 1859. Official Map of the Nanaimo District. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 12T1 Land Divisions.
Nanaimo Indian Reserves. n.d.a. [Official Plan of Nanaimo Indian Reserves]. Maps ands Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 14 Vancouver Island I.R.
Nanaimo Indian Reserves. n.d.b. [Official Plan of Nanaimo Indian Reserves]. Maps ands Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 15 Vancouver Island I.R.
Nanaimo Indians. 1864. [Speech given by Nanaimo Indians to Governor Kennedy November 15th, 1864. Translated by Thomas Crosby]. In Vancouver Island and British Columbia, by Matthew Macfie. Published in 1865. London: Longman, Green et al: 468-469.
Pearse, B.W. 1870. Memo from B.W. Pearse to Governor Musgrave, August 6th, 1870. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. GR 1372, File 132/10a.
Pearse, B.W. 1859. Country Around Nanaimo, April-June 1859. Surveyor's field Notebook and diary. Maps and Plans Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 4/59 P.H. 1 Nanaimo (copy also exists in Nanaimo Community Archives, AR5/34).
Pemberton, J.D. 1860. Letter from Pemberton to James Douglas, March 28th, 1860. Map of Nanaimo attached. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. C/AA/30.7J/1.
Pemberton, J.D. 1854. Letter from Pemberton to Archibald Barclay, June 16th, 1854. A map of Nanaimo by Pemberton is attached. Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, Winnipeg. A.11/75.
Pemberton, J.D. 1852. Coast About Nanaimo. Survey notes. British Columbia Archives And Records Service, Victoria. GR 1069, Box 19, Item 134.
Pemberton, J.D. 1852. Letter from J.D. Pemberton to James Douglas, September 27th, 1852. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. A/C/15/H86P.
Rozen, David. 1978. The Ethnozoology of the Cowichan Indian People of British Columbia, Vol. 1: Fish, Beach Foods, and Marine Mammals. Unpublished Report. Original retained by author, Vancouver, B.C.
Smith, Harlan I. Nanaimo Area Archaeological Sites. H. I. Smith Collection, Box 6, File 4. Scientific Records Section, Archaeological Survey of Canada, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, Quebec.
Sproat, Gilbert M. 1876. report to the Minister of the Interior, December 20th, 1876. National Archives of Canada, RG 10, Vol. 3611, File 3756-4. (Transcript prepared By Robin Fisher, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.).
Trutch, J.W. 1872. Map of British Columbia, Being a Geographic Division of the Indians Of the Province According to Their Nationality or Dialect. National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. RG10M, Accession 901-10, Drawer D3950, F3.
Wellington District Crown Grants. n.d. Register of Crown Grants in Wellington District. Vol. 2. Crown Grant Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria.
Wellington District Register. n.d. Register of Lands in Wellington District. Registers Vault, Surveyor General Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria.
White, Edison. 1950. Letter from Edison White to Rev. Peter Kelly, June 17th, 1950. Indian and Northern Affairs Headquarters, Hull, Quebec. Central Registry File 1/1-11-18, Vol.1.
White, Edward. 1864a. Letter from Rev. E. White to Governor Kennedy, May 30th, 1864. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. GR 1372, File 536/8a.
White, Edward. 1864b. Report by Rev. E. White of a Council meeting of the Chiefs Of the Nanaimo Indians, May 31st, 1864, in the presence of Thomas Crosby. British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. GR 1372, File 536/8b.
There are many paintings, post-cards and early photographs which depict the Snuneymuxw First Nation. Here is a list of a few of them:
Alden, James M. 1858. [Water Colour Painting of a First Nations Village in the Town of Nanaimo, October 1858]. Original in the Archives and Records Service of B.C., Victoria. Painting PDP 2144.
Alden, James, M. 1857a. [Water Colour Painting of Indian Grave Figures at Departure Bay, July 17th, 1857]. Original held in Washington State Historical Society Museum and Archives, Tacoma, Washington. Alden, # 57.
Alden, James, M. 1857b. [Water Colour Painting (close-up perspective) of One of the Indian Grave Figures at Departure Bay That is Shown in Alden 1857a]. Original in Washington State Historical Society Museum and Archives, Tacoma Washington. Alden # 58.
McMurtrie, William B. 1850. Water-colour of painting dated "July 1850" on the basis of Monroe's (1960) research; entitled "Departure Bay, Vancouver Isld". M. and M. Karolik Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts. Accession No. 59.138, Neg. No. C18867.
Simpson, Emilius. 1858. Fraser River, from a drawing by Mr. Emilius Simpson on H.B.C. Schooner Cadboro, 1827 (Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty, London, England). British Columbia Archives and Records Service, Victoria. Map Division CM/B165.
Alternate spellings for Snuneymuxw:1. Xwe Nal Mewx
3. Sne Nay Muxw
4. Sne May Moo
5. Sne Nay Moes
21. Xwso l exwel
24. Sna Na Mo
Websites For Snuneymuxw Related Materials
Snuneymuxw First Nation:
http://www.snuneymuxw.ca/admin.htm (opens in a new window)
An Account of the Life and Times of George Robinson, a Nanaimo
Pioneer, by Randolph S. Vickers.
http://www.crunchers.bc.ca/robinson/index.html (opens in a new window)
Gallery of the Open Frontier:
http://gallery.unl.edu/about.html (opens in a new window)
Vancouver Island GenWeb Project:
http://www.rootsweb.com/~bcvancou/ (opens in a new window)
http://www.ammsa.com/raven/index.htm (opens in a new window)
The Nanaimo Free Press Series on Mark Bates, Mark Bate's Reminiscences
of Early Nanaimo Days:
http://www.rootsweb.com/~bcvancou/newspaper/header.htm (opens in a new window)
Diamond Jenness and the Coast Salish:
http://bcheritage.ca/salish/ph2/trad/page06.htm (opens in a new window)
The Nanaimo Community Archives:
http://www.nanaimoarchives.ca (opens in a new window)
Gabriola Historical and Museum Society's Historical Resources
http://www.gabriolamuseum.org/resource.html (opens in a new window)
Burke Museum Website:
http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/ (opens in a new window)