These books and articles were used during the course of planning, researching and writing this project. A solid bibliography is the basis of any thorough research, but in the case of the Voices of the Snuneymuxw project, our most important sources were members of the Snuneymuxw community. Our conversations with them were used together with what archaeologists, art historians, anthropologists, botanists and ethnographers wrote. We sought out maps and photographs, video and sound recordings, newsletters and the stories of the Elders.

Ashwell, Reg. Coast Salish: Their Art, Culture and Legends. (Saanichton B.C.: Hancock House, 1978).

Assu, Harry. Assu of Cape Mudge. (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Press, 1989).

Barnett, Homer G. The Coast Salish of British Columbia. (Eugene: University of Oregon, 1955).

Baugh, Timothy G. and Ericson, Jonathon E., eds. Prehistoric Exchange Systems in North America. (New York: Plenham Press, 1994).

Boas, Franz. (Bouchard, Randy and Dorothy, Kennedy, Dorothy, eds.). Indian Myths and Legends From the North Pacific Coast of America. (Vancouver: B.C. Indian Language Project, 2002).

Bouchard, Randy. Notes on Nanaimo Ethnography and Ethnohistory. Report prepared for I.R. Wilson Consultants, Ltd. (Brentwood Bay, August 1993).

Brett, Mark. “Natives Rebuild Longhouse”, Daily Free Press. (Nanaimo, June 3, 1993), pp. 1-3.

Burley, David V. Senewélets: Culture History of the Nanaimo Coast Salish and the False Narrows Midden. (Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum, Memoir No.2,, 1989).

Carlson, Keith Thor, ed., foreword by Xwelixweltel. A Stó:lõ: Coast Salish Historical Atlas. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2001).

Carter, Anthony. Abundant Rivers. (Saanichton, B.C.: Hancock House, 1972).

Cryer, Beryl M. with Tstass-Aya and Quen-Es-Then. Legends of the Snuneymuxw, transcribed and printed in the Victoria Daily Colonist, various issues in series, 1930s.

Chechik, Marilyn. “Study on Baskets at the Nanaimo District Museum”. (Prepared for the Nanaimo District Museum, 1993).

Cole, Douglas. Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1985).

Darwent, John. The Prehistoric Use of Nephrite on the British Columbia Plateau. (Simon Fraser University: Archaeology Press, 1998).

Dheensaw, Cleve. Island of Champions: A Sporting History of Vancouver Island. (Victoria: Orca Book Publishers, 1988).

Dheensaw, Cleve. Lacrosse 100, One Hundred Years of Lacrosse in B.C. (Victoria: Orca Book Publishers, 1990).

Duff, Wilson. The Impact of the White Man (Volume I: The Indian History of British Columbia). (Victoria: Anthropology in British Columbia Memoir, 1964).

Duff, Wilson and Hilary Stewart. Images stone b.c.: Thirty Centuries of Northwest Coast Indian Sculpture. (Saanichton, B.C.: Hancock House Publishers, Ltd., 1975)

Epps, Mary-Lynn and Stocker, Debbie. Understanding Our Past … Shaping Our Future: A Coast Salish History of the Sne-ney-muxw and Snaw-naw-as Nations. (Nanaimo: School District 68 Curriculum Guide For Teachers).

Fisher, Donald M. Lacrosse, A History of the Game. (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2002).

Gerdts, Donna. Object and Absolutive in Halkomelem Salish. (PhD Dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1982).

Gosnell, Joseph, Sr., Robonson, Rod, Nyce, Harry et. Al. eds. Bringing Our Ancestors Home: The Repatriation of Nisga’a Artifacts. (New Aiyansh, B.C.: Nisga’a Tribal Council, c. 1997).

Government of British Columbia. Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act, (Victoria: 1960).

Government of British Columbia. Heritage Conservation Act. (Victoria: 1977). Available at:

Gustafson, Paula. Salish Weaving. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1980).

Hawkins, Elizabeth. Indian Weaving Knitting Basketry of the Northwest. (Saanichton, B.C.: Hancock House Publishers Ltd., 1978).

Hill, Beth & Ray. Indian Petroglyphs of the Pacific Northwest. (Saanichton, B.C.: Hancock House Publishsers Ltd., 1974).

Hill, Beth. Guide to Indian Rock Carvings of the Pacific Northwest Coast. (Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House Publishers Ltd., 1989).

Holm, Bill. Spirit and Ancestor: A Century of Northwest Coast Indian Art at the Burke Museum. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987).

Inverarity, Robert Bruce. Art of the Northwest Coast Indians. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950).

Jaarsma, Sjoerd R., ed. Handle With Care: Ownership and Control of Ethnographic Materials. (Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 2002).

Jenness, Diamond. The Faith of a Coast Salish Indian. Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No. 3 (Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1955).

Johnson, Patricia M. Welcome to Nanaimo. (Vancouver: Trendex Publications and Western Heritage for the City of Nanaimo: Vancouver, 1974).

Kennedy, Dorothy and Bouchard, Randy. Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands. (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1983).

Klahowya, The Voice of the Member Nations of the Naut’samawt Tribal council. (Volume 3, Isssue 4, October 2006).

Lincoln, Leslie. Coast Salish Canoes. (Seattle: Center for Wooden Boats: Seattle, 1991).

Lobb, Allan. Indian Baskets of the Northwest Coast. (Oregon: Charles H. Belding, 1978).

Mackie, Quentin. Classification and Use-life Cycle of Ground Stone Celts from Coast Salishan British Columbia. (MA Thesis, University of Victoria, 1992).

McNutt, Nan. The Spindle Whorl. (Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1997).

Meany, Edmond S. Vancouver’s Discovery of Puget Sound. (London: Macmillan, 1907).

Millennia Research Ltd., Duke Point Ferry Terminal Highway Access 1994 Impact Assessment: Archaeological Inventory, Nanaimo. (1995).

Murray, Rebecca Anne. Analysis of Artifacts from Four Duke Point Area Sites, Near Nanaimo, B.C.: An Example of Cultural Continuity in the Gulf of Georgia Region. (Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1982).

Nabokov, Peter and Easton, Robert. Native American Architecture. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).

Olsen, Sylvia Valerie. “We Indians were sure hard workers”: A History of Coast Salish Wool Working. (MA Thesis, University of Victoria, 1994).

Pojar, Jim and MacKinnon, Andy. Plants of Coastal British Columbia. (Vancouver: B.C. Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing, 1994).

Porter, Frank W., III. The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legacy. (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990).

Porter, Frank W., III. The Coast Salish Peoples. (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989).

Stewart, Hilary. Fishing: Early Methods on the Northwest Coast. (Vancouver: J.J. Douglas Ltd., 1977).

Stewart, Hilary. Cedar: Tree of Life to the Northwest Coast Indians. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984).

Stewart, Hilary. Looking at Indian Art of the Northwest Coast. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1979).

Stewart, Hilary. Stone, Bone, Antler and Shell: Artifacts of the Northwest Coast. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1996).

Suttles, Wayne P. Coast Salish Essays. (Vancouver: Talon Books, 1987).

Suttles, Wayne P. “Native North American Art: Dwellings and Other Structures: Northwest Coast”, Dictionary of Art, Volume 22. Jane Turner, ed. (New York: Grove, 1996), pp. 563-566.

Suttles, Wayne P. “Productivity and Its Constraints: A Coast Salish Case,” Indian Art Traditions of the Northwest Coast.(Burnaby, B.C.: Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, c. 1976.), pp. 67-87.

Suttles, Wayne P.. The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. (New York and London: Garland Publishing Inc., 1974).

Turner, Nancy J. Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. (Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum, 1998).

White, Ellen. Kwulasulwut: Stories From the Coast Salish. (Nanaimo B.C.: Theytus Books, 1981).

White, Ellen. Kwulasulwut II: More Stories From the Coast Salish. (Penticton B.C.: Theytus Books, 1997).

White, Ellen. Legends and Teachings of Xeel’s, The Creator. (Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press, 2006).

Private Correspondence and Discussion:

Royal British Columbia Museum:
Brian Seymore
Martha Black
Grant Keddie
Dan Savard
Jim Cosgrove
Shelley Reid

Nanaimo District Museum
David Hill-Turner

Simon Fraser University:
Donna Gerdts
Barbara Winter

Snuneymuxw First Nation:
Geraldine Manson
Ellen White
Darren Good
Loraine Littlefield

Bill Seward

Malaspina University-College:
Helene Demers
Lynette Harper

D’Ann Owens
Bjorn Simonsen